Neuroprotective Effects of Brain-Gut Peptides: A Potential Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease

Dong Dong 1 · Junxia Xie 1 · Jun Wang 1

1 Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathogenesis and Prevention of Neurological Disorders, Shandong Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for Neurodegenerative Disorders and State Key Disciplines: Physiology, Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease and is typically associated with progressive motor and non-motor dysfunctions. Currently, dopamine replacement therapy is mainly used to relieve the motor symptoms, while its long-term application can lead to various complications and does not cure the disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that many brain-gut peptides have neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro, and may be a promising treatment for PD. In recent years, some progress has been made in studies on the neuroprotective effects of some newly-discovered brain-gut peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide 1, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide, nesfatin-1, and ghrelin. However, there is still no systematic review on the neuroprotective effects common to these peptides. Thus, here we review the neuroprotective effects and the associated mechanisms of these four peptides, as well as other brain-gut peptides related to PD, in the hope of providing new ideas for the treatment of PD and related clinical research.


Parkinson’s disease; Glucagon-like peptide 1; Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide; Nesfatin-1; Ghrelin


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