Increased CXCL13 and CXCR5 in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Contributes to Neuropathic Pain-Related Conditioned Place Aversion
Xiao-Bo Wu1 • Li-Na He1 • Bao-Chun Jiang1 • Xue Wang1 • Ying Lu2 • Yong-Jing Gao 1,3
1 Institute of Pain Medicine, Institute of Special Environmental Medicine, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China
2 Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China
3 Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China
Pain consists of sensory-discriminative and emotional-affective components. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a critical brain area in mediating the affective pain. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Our recent study indicated that C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13) and its sole receptor CXCR5 are involved in sensory sensitization in the spinal cord after spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Whether CXCL13/CXCR5 signaling in the ACC contributes to the pathogenesis of pain-related aversion remains unknown. Here, we showed that SNL increased the CXCL13 level and CXCR5 expression in the ACC after SNL. Knockdown of CXCR5 by microinjection of Cxcr5 shRNA into the ACC did not affect SNL-induced mechanical allodynia but effectively alleviated neuropathic pain-related place avoidance behavior. Furthermore, electrophysiological recording from layer II–III neurons in the ACC showed that SNL increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), decreased the EPSC paired-pulse ratio, and increased the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ratio, indicating enhanced glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Finally, superfusion of CXCL13 onto ACC slices increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs. Pre-injection of Cxcr5 shRNA into the ACC reduced the increase in glutamatergic synaptic transmission induced by SNL. Collectively, these results suggest that CXCL13/CXCR5 signaling in the ACC is involved in neuropathic pain-related aversion via synaptic potentiation.
CXCL13; CXCR5; Anterior cingulate cortex; Neuropathic pain; Conditioned place aversion; Synaptic transmission